The Major Symptoms of Diabetes
By Zarmayana Nur Khairunni, 1306464732
Nowadays, many people who evade of a healthy lifestyle with various reasons. In fact, avoid a healthy lifestyle would have diseases which are injurious to the body. One of the healthy lifestyles is intake of nutrients. Diabetes is one of the diseases that caused by a factor of nutrients. There were 9 million cases of diabetes in Indonesia in 2014, according to International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes in Indonesia, the ministry of health, believes this number will jump to 21.3 million by 2030. This number will continue to rise as some of them did not know the symptoms of diabetes or late to know that. The major symptoms of diabetes that can dettected without going to the doctor are polyphagia, polyuria, and polydipsia or 3P’s.
Polyphagia is the medical term which to describe excessive hunger or increased appetite. In a normal case, if the glucose enters the body, it will convert into glycogen by insulin and stored in the liver as energy reserves. Yet, in patients with diabetes, the glucose cannot get into target cells or transformed into glycogen to be stored in the liver. That because the insulin cannot work or can work with a slow operation. Therefore, there is no intake of glucose to the cells, that the condition causes the brain would think that the body is deprived of glucose so that the patient will continue to feel hungry and weak.
The second symptom is polyuria, a condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large production or passage of urine. Patients with diabetes, due to the insulin that are not able to turn glucose to glycogen makes glucose levels in the blood to be high. This condition cause hyperfiltration in the kidney, which also increasing the speed of filtration in the kidney. As a result, glucose and sodium absorbed the kidney into excess so that the urine that produced many and make patients become fast to pee and have a large production of urine.
Polyuria can cause polydipsia. Polydipsia is the condition when someone increased thirst and fluid intake. Normally, the process of filtration in the kidneys are diffusion process, which is the filtration of a substance from the low to high pressure. However, in patients with diabetes who have high blood glucose causing a high concentration of glucose in blood vessels. Therefore, filtration process in the kidney turn to osmosis, the filtration of substance from high to low pressure. As a result, many substances of waters in the blood vessels move to the kidney, so the blood vessels have lost many substances of water or become low concentration that causing patient feels thirsty quickly and increase fluid intake.
The 3P’s of diabetes are caused by the effects of diabetes on the body. Signs and symptoms of the above is a condition that causes discomfort for anyone. Be alert to the symptoms of diabetes early, it will save our lives or those around us. If you have any of these symptoms, it is important to contact your health-care provider right away. However, prevention still better than cure. So let’s take care of a healthy lifestyle from now.
Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. (2009). Tahun 2030 prevalensi diabetes melitus di Indonesia mencapai 21,3 juta orang. Retrivied from http://www.depkes.go.id/article/view/414/tahun-2030-prevalensi-diabetes-melitus-di-indonesia-mencapai-213-juta-orang.html
International Diabetes Federation. (2014). Indonesia. Retrivied from http://www.idf.org/membership/wp/indonesia.